Here you will find details of the research that has guided our recipe choices for our entire award winning 100% natural endurance nutrition range. If you have any more questions please do get in touch.

1) Black CD, Herring MP, Hurley DJ, O'Connor PJ. Ginger Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise. The Journal of Pain 2010; 11(9):894-903

2) Hoseinzadeh K, Daryanoosh F, Baghdasar PJ, Alizadeh H. Acute effects of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2015; 29:261

3) Matsumura MD, Zavorsky GS, Smoliga JM. The effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on muscle damage & delayed onset muscle soreness. Phytotherapy Research, Vol 29; 6 :887-893

4) Bartels EM, Folmer VN, Bliddal H, Altman RD, Juhl C, Tarp S, Zhang W, Christensen R. Efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 ;23(1):13-21. 

5) Wu KL, Rayner CK, Chuah SK, Changchien CS, Lu SN, Chiu YC, Lee CM. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 May;20(5):436-40 

6) Micklefield G, Redeker Y, Meister V, Jung O, Greving I, May B. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1999;37(7) :341–346

7) Silva N, Alves S, Goncalves A, Amaral, J.S, Poeta, P.  Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria [Abstract]. Food Science and Technology International, 2013: 19 (6). 

8) Singletary, K. Thyme: History, Applications, and Overview of Potential Health Benefits. Nutrition Today. 2016 Jan/Feb: 51(1): 40-49

9) Wei A, Shibamoto T. Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils.  J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 58: 7218-7225

10) Zotti M, Colaianna M, Maria Grazia Morgese M,Tucci P , Schiavone S, Avato P & Trabace L. Carvacrol: From Ancient Flavoring to Neuromodulatory Agent. Molecules2013; 18:  6161-6172

11) Viloen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutrition J. 2014; 13: 20

12) Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Savari M, Pouramir M, Jalali F, Moghadamnia AA. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008; 29 (9) : 1280-4

13) Wilson PB, Ingraham SJ.  Glucose-fructose likely improves gastrointestinal comfort and endurance running performance relative to glucose-only. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015; 25(6):e613-20

14) Stellingwerff T & Cox GR. Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Sep;39(9):998-1011

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16) Kreider RB, Campbell B. Protein for exercise and recovery. Phys Sportsmed 2009 Jun;37(2):13-21

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18) Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB 3rd, Ivy JL. Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J App Physiol 1992 May;72(5):1854-9 

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21) Nehlig A. Daval JL, Debry G. Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Res Rev. 1992 May-Aug;17(2):139-70 

22) Graham TE, Hibbert E, Sathasivam P. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. J App Physiol. 1998 Sep;85(3):883-9

23) Wiles JD, Bird SR, Hopkins J, Riley M. Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500m treadmill running. Br J Sports Med.1992 Jun; 26(2): 116–120. 

24) Demura S, Yamada T, Terasawa N. Effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion during sub maximal endurance exercise. Percept Mot Skills.2007 Dec;105(3 Pt 2):1109-16 

25) Graham TE. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med 2001;31(11):785-80  

26) Hulston CJ, Jeukendrup AE. Substate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Dec;40(12):2096-104

27) Dodd FL, Kennedy DO, Riby LM, Haskell-Ramsay CF. A double-blind, placebo controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology. 2015 Jul;232(14):2563-76 

28) Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB. A double-blind, placebo controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guarana in humans. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jan;21(1):65-70

29) Vinson JA, Zubik L, Bose P, Samman N, Proch J. Dried Fruits: excellent in vitro and in vivo antioxidants. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Feb;24(1):44-50.

30) Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Ivy JL, Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Oct 3;5:17 

31) Poole C, Wilborn C, Taylor L, Kerksick C. The role of post-exercise nutrient administration on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis. J Sports Sci Med. 2010 Sep 1;9(3):354-63

32) Wedler FC. Biochemical and nutritional role of manganese: An overview. In: Klimis-Tavantzis DJ, editor. Manganese in health and disease. Boca Raton, LA: CRC Press; 1994. pp. 1–36.

33) Choi E, Hwang J. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare . Fitoterapia2004;75(6):557–565

34) Lunven C, Le Clement De St Marcq C, Carnovale E, Fratoni A. Amino Acid composition of hen's egg. Brit J Nutr. 1973; 30 (2): 189-94

35) Rahmani AH, Aly, SM, Ali H, Batiker AY, Srikar S & Khan AA. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity. Int J Cin Exp Med. 2014; 7(3): 483–491

36) Sokolov AN, Pavlova MA, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P. Chocolate and the brain: neurological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Dec;37(10 Pt 2):2445-53

37) Crozier JC, Preston AG, Hurst JW, Payne MJ, Mann J, Hainly L & Miller DL. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products. Chemistry Central Journal. 2011; 5:5

38) Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions contribute to the maintenance of endurance performance during prolonged endurance exerciseEFSA Journal. 2011;9(6):2211

39) Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions enhance the absorption of water during physical exercise. EFSA Journal. 2011;9(6):2211

40) Ismail I, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG. Rehydration with sodium-enriched coconut water after exercise-induced dehydration. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007 Jul;38(4):769-85.

41) Orem A, Yucesan FB, Orem C, Akcan B, Kural BV, Alsalavar C, Shahidi F. Hazelnut-enriched diet improves cardiovascular risk biomarkers beyond a lipid-lowering effect in hypercholesterloemic subjects. J Cin Lipidol. 2013 March-Apr; 7 (2): 123-31

42) Liang N, Kitts DD. Antioxidant property of coffee components: assessment of methods that define mechanism of action. Molecules 2014 Nov 19;19(11):19180-208.

43) Eun H, Jung IK, Jae YC, Seung HL, Tae SK, Ik HY, Hyang SC. Supplementation. of standardised lipid-soluble extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) increases swimming endurance capacity in rats. J of Functional Foods 2012: 4 (2): 568-573

44) Stone M, Ibarra A, Roller M, Zangara A,Stevenson E.J.  A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2009; 126 (3): 574-576.

45) Abou-Zaid MM, Nozzolillo C, Tonon A, Coppens MD, Lombardo DA. High-performance liquid chromatography characterization and identification of antioxidant polyphenols in maple syrup. 2008 Pharmaceutical Biology 46: 117-125.

46) Larsen FL, Schiffer TA, Borniquel S, Sahlin K, Lundberg JO, Weinberg E. Dietery inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans. Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):149-59.

47) Muggeridge DJ, Howe CC, Spendiff O, Pedlar C, James PE, Easton C. A single dose of beetroot juice enhances cycling performance in simulated altitude. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014 Jan; 46 (1): 143-50.

48) Kuehl KS, Perrier ET, Elliot DL, Chesnutt JC. Efficicacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 May; 7 (7):17

49) Howatson G, McHugh `MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, Van Someren KA, Shave RE. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010; 20 (6): 842-852

50) Levers K, Dalton R, Galavan E, Goodenenough C, O'Connor A, Simbo S, Barringer N, Mertens-Talcott SU, Ramussen C, GreenwoodM, Reichman S, Crouse S, Kreider RB. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutririon 2015 Nov; 12; 41

51) Kenia P, Houghton T, Beardsmore C. Does inhaling menthol affect nasal patency or cough? Pediatr Pulmonol 2008 Jun (6); 532-7

52) Raudenbush B, Grayhem R, Sears T, Wilson I. Effects of Peppermint and Cinnamon odour administration on simulated driving alertness, mood and workload. North American Journal of Psychology 2009 Nov (2):245-256

53) Xanthopoulou M.N, Nomikos T, Fragopoulou S, Antonopoulou S. Antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of pumpkin seed extracts. Food Research International 2009 Jun-Jul (5-6): 641-646

54) Kim D-H, Kim S-K, Jeong W-S, Lee H-Y. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances. J Exercise Nutrition Biochem 2013 Dec 17(4):169-180

55) Foure A, Bendahan D. Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2017 Sep 21;9 (10):1047

56) Jackman SR, Witard OC, Philip A, Wallis G, Baar K, Tipton KD. Branched-Chain Amino Acids Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis in Humans. Front Physio 2017 Jun 7;8;390

57) Niemen DC, Gillit ND, Henson DA, Sha W, Shanley RA, Knab AM, Cialdella-Kam L, Jin F. Bananas as an energy source e during exrecise: a metabolomics approach : Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e37479.

58) Ludovici V, Barthelmes J, Nagele MP, Enseleit F, Ferri C, Flammer AJ, Ruschitzka F, Sudano I. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function: Review. Front Nutr 2017 Aug 2;4:36.

59) Gonzales GF. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;193496

60) Zha S, Zhao Q, Chen J, Wang L, Zhang G, Zhang H, Zhao B. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Maca (Lepidium meyenii). Carbohydrates Polym 2014 Oct 13;111:584-7  

61) Yang Q, Jin W, Lv X, Dai P, Ao Y,Wu M, Dend W, Yu L.Effects of macamides on endurance capacity and anti-fatigue property in prolonged swimming mice. Pharm Biol 2016;54(5):827-34.

62) Winston D, Maines S. Adaptogens. 2007

63) Morrillas-Ruiz J, Zafrilla P, Almar M, Cuevas MJ, Lopez FJ, Abellan P, Villegas JA, Gonzalez-Gallego J. The effects of an antioxidant-supplemented beverage on exercise-induced oxidative stress: results from a placebo-controlled double-blind study in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol 2005 Dec;95 (5-6):543-9.

64) Burton-Freeman BM, Sandhu AK. Edirisinghe I. Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links. Adv Nutr 2016 Jan 15;7(1):44-65. doi: 10.3945/an.115.009639. Print 2016 Jan.

65) Del Pozo-Insfran D, Brenes CH, Talcott STT. Phytochemical composition and pigment stability of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) J Agric Food Chem 2004 Mar 24;52(6):1539-45. 

66) Sadowska-Krepa E, Klapcinska B, Podgorski T, Szdae B, Tyl K, Hadzik A. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study. Biol Sport 2015 Jun;32(2):161-8. 

67) Jensen GS, Ager DM, Redman KA, Mitzner MA, Benson KF, Schauss AG. Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend. J Med Food Jul-Aug 2011;14(7-8):702-11. 

68) Willems, M.E.T., Cousins, L., Williams, D. Blacker, S.D. Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. Sports 2016; (3):4 

69) Perkins, I.C, Vine, S.A., Blacker, S.D, Willems, M.E.T. New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves High-intensity Intermittent Running. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 2015; 25(5): 487-93. 

70) Cook, M.D, Myers, S.D, Blacker, S.D, Willems, M.E.T. New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves Cycling Performance and Fat Oxidation in Cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2015; 115(11): 2357-65. 

71) Bach, H. V., Kim, J., Myung, S. K., & Cho, Y. (2016). Efficacy of Ginseng Supplements on Fatigue and Physical Performance: a Meta-analysisJournal of Korean Medical Science 2016 31(12), 1879-1886

72) Jung H L, Kwak H. E, Kim S. S., Kim Y. C, Lee C. D, Byurn H. K, & Kang H. Y. Effects of Panax ginseng supplementation on muscle damage and inflammation after uphill treadmill running in humans. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2011 39(03), 441-450

73) Kennedy DO, Scholey AB Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and moodPharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75 (3):687-700. 

74) Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks J Psychopharmacol. 2006 Nov;20(6):771-81. 

75) Kim HG, Cho JH, You SR, Lee JS, Han JM, Lee NH, Ahn YC, Son CG. Antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Korean Med Sci 2013 Apr 17;8(4):e61271.

76) Caldwell LK, DuPont WH, Beeler MK, Post EM, Barnhart EC, Hardesty VH, Anders JP, Borden EC, Volek JS, Kraemer WJ. The Effects of a Korean Ginseng, GINST15, on Perceptual Effort, Psychomotor Performance, and Physical Performance in Men and Women. J Sports Sci Med. 2018 Mar; 17(1): 92–100. 

77) Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Samoticha J, Eler K, Stampar F, Veberic R. Traditional elderflower beverages: a rich source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63(5):1477-87.

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79) K Srinivasan. Black pepper and it's pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(8):735-48.

80) Davis MJ, Murphy AE, Carmichael MD, Zielinski MR, Groschwitz CM, Brown AS, Gangemi JD, Ghaffar A, Mayer EP. Curcumin effects on inflammation and performance recovery following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):R2168-73.

81) Nicol LM, Rowlands DS, Fazakerly R, Kellet J. Curcumin supplementation likely attenuates dealyes onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Aug;115(8):1769-77.

82) Mashhadi NS, Ghiasvand R, Asarki G, Feizi A, Hairi M, Barani A, Taghiyar M, Shiranian A, Haiishafiee M. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes. J Prev Med. 2013 Apr;4(Suppl 1):S11-5.

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87) Lebaka VR, Wee Y-J, Ye W, Korivi M. .Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Compounds in Three Different Parts of Mango Fruit. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 16;18(2):741. 

88) Imran M, Arshad MS, Butt MS, Kwon J-H, Arshad MU, Sultan MT. Mangiferin: a natural miracle bioactive compound against lifestyle related disorders. Lipids Health Dis 2017 May 2;16(1):84. 

89) Jiang Z, Sun T-Y, He Y, Gou W, Zuo LSH, Fu Y, Miao Z, Shuai M, Xu F, Xiao C, Liang Y, Wang J, Xu Y, Jing L-P, Zhou WL, Chen Y-M. Dietary fruit and vegetable intake, gut microbiota, and type 2 diabetes: results from two large human cohort studies. BMC Med 2020 Dec 3;18(1):371 

90) Joseph SV, Edirisinghe I, Burton-Freeman BM. Fruit Polyphenols: A Review of Anti-inflammatory Effects in Humans. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr  2016;56(3):419-44. 

91) Jeukendrup, Asker, and Michael Gleeson. Dehydration and Its Effects on Performance. Humankinetics. 29 July 2015.

92) Carlson JL, Erickson JM, Lloyd BB, Slavin JL. Health Effects and Sources of Prebiotic Dietary Fiber. Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Mar; 2(3)

93) Valeur J, Puaschitz NG, Midtvedt T, Berstad A. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 14;115(1):62-7

94) Ros E, Hu FB. Consumption of Plant Seeds and Cardiovascular Health: Epidemiologic and Clinical Trial Evidence. Circulation 2013 Jul 30; 128(5): 555-565

95) Bonilla DA, Moreno Y, Gho C, Petro JL, Odriozola-Martinez A, Kreider RB. Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) on Physical Performance: Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol 2021 Feb 11;6(1):20

96) Akhgarjand, Farzanaeh, Asoudeh, Bagheri A, Kalantar Z, Vahabi Z, Shah-Bidar S, Rezvani H, Djafarian K. Does Ashwagandha supplementation have a beneficial effect on the management of anxiety and stress? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  Phytother Res 2022 Nov:36 (11): 4115-4124 

97) Auddy B, Hazra J, Mitra A, Abedon B, Ghosal S. A standardized Withania Somnifera Extract significantly reduces stress-related parameters in chronically stressed humans: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. JANA 2008:11(1): 50-56

98) Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62

99) Cheah KL, Norhayati MN, Yaacob LH, Rahman RA. Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLos One 2021 Sep 24;16(9)

100) Bezerra-Filho CS, Bardoza JN, Souza MTS, Sabry P, Ismail NSM, de Sousa DP. Therapeutic Potential of Vanillin and its Main Metabolites to Regulate the Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress. Mini Rev Med Chem 2019;19(20):1681-1693.

101) Calixto-Campos C, Carvalho TT, Hohmann MS, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Fattori V, Manchope MF, Zarpelon AC, Baracat MM, Georgetti SR, Casagrande R, Verri W. Vanillic Acid Inhibits Inflammatory Pain by Inhibiting Neutrophil Recruitment, Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production, and NFκB Activation in Mice. J Nat Prod. 2015 Aug 28;78(8):1799-808.